The South African Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) was established to primarily promote, regulate and enforce civil aviation safety and security in South Africa. I believe that we are well on track in fulfilling this mandate, and the achievements we have realised during the year under review bear witness to this. Being in charge of a huge and ever growing aviation industry such as the one we have in South Africa will always bring its own challenges, but I believe that the CAA has grown from strength to strength since its inception in 1998 and is now in a much better position to rise above all these challenges.
Aviation safety and security are unachievable without an effective oversight programme from the CAA. Thus during the year under review more emphasis was placed on enhancing and increasing operational efficiency in order to improve on our oversight activities. Coupled with this was the implementation of an ongoing programme of capacity building and skills deepening for our staff in order to equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge that will enable them to carry out their duties with efficiency and proficiency. We also made a deliberate effort to increase our overall staff complement quite significantly in order to put the CAA in a far better position to achieve its strategic objectives.
We view the CAA as a very important national asset, not only for South Africa but for the entire continent as well. We believe that in order to make a positive contribution to global aviation safety and security, we must work very closely with our partners in the African Indian (AFI) region. Hence we have it in our mission statement that we will actively participate in the harmonisation of AFI regional standards. Work in this area is progressing fairly well, although very slow due to limited re-sources. As a well resourced civil aviation authority in this region, we have taken it upon ourselves to spearhead this project, and so far we have received solid co-operation with our partners in the SADC region, other states on the continent as well as many other member states of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). Through harmoni-sation and co-operation in the region, we are very confident that we can contribute to achieving the universal goal of safer skies in AFI region and the rest of the world.
Another important point to emphasise here is the fact that the CAA is committed to working very closely with all sectors of the industry in order to continuously improve on the levels of safety and security in South Africa. We therefore view the industry as a strategic
partner and important stakeholder in achieving this. For this purpose, the CAA is working hard to encourage voluntary compliance from the industry, and I must congratulate the industry in general for their positive response and co-operation in this regard. Their co-operation will go a long way in making South Africa a benchmark for aviation safety and security in the world, and I am of the view that our aviation industry has matured well enough to achieve this.
We will therefore continue and enhance the practice of engaging the industry through a number of industry liaison forums and other means of communication in order to interact and exchange information with our stakeholders. Through this we can establish and maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the industry, and also listen to their concerns and address them. As a regulator which is paid for by the industry, we need to show transparency, accountability and responsibility towards the industry that we were established to serve and regulate.
I believe that the CAA is well on track in achieving its mandate. Obstacles to service delivery are continuously been identified and addressed immediately.
As a learning organisation the CAA is continuously searching for best practices that can be implemented to improve operational efficiency and service delivery. Before I end this report, I wish to thank all the outgoing Board members whose term expired at the end of April 2005. I wish to sincerely thank them for the valuable contribution they made during their term in office as Board of Directors for the CAA.
A new Board for the CAA was appointed by the Honourable Minister of Transport, Mr Jeff Radebe, on 1 May 2005, comprising of myself as Chairman, Major General Themba Ntsibande (Chairman – Safety Committee), Ms Malebo Magasa (Chairman – Finance & Audit Committee), Ms Bridget Mohlala (Chairman – Human Resource & Remuneration Committee) and Mr John Morrison.
Finally, on behalf of the Board, I wish to thank the Management and Staff of the CAA for their commitment and positive contribution they made during the year. Through their continued support and dedication, the CAA will continue to grow and become a dynamic organisation we all want it to be.
CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD
I am pleased to present the South African Civil Aviation Authority’s Annual Report for 2004–05.
In terms of the CAA’s performance during 2004–05 financial year, this was another year of solid achievement with a key focus on meeting our core mandate as defined by the South African Civil Aviation Authority Act, No.40, of 1998.
Our safety oversight activities have improved quite significantly during the year under review due to increased internal capacity, deliberate efforts to improve operational efficiency and an organisational focus on increased service delivery. Our staff comple-ment was also increased quite significantly during the year, thereby putting the CAA in a much better position to fulfill its mandate.
In brief, I can confidently report that during the year I am reporting on, the CAA continuously increased its efforts to promote and improve the levels of safety throughout the civil aviation industry. The CAA also remained committed to improving its capacity in order to adhere to the standards and safety oversight requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), especially in all the technical areas. In the next financial year we will put more effort in the recruitment and retention of more suitably qualified personnel in these technical areas.
Without being too complacent, we also acknowledge that some deficiencies existed in carrying out our oversight activities and that these were not as intensive as the ideal situation would demand. However, as a responsible public entity, these were identified and are currently receiving our urgent attention. Through continuous reviewing and monitoring, we are able to identify gaps that hinder us from fully achieving our strategic objectives, which in turn enable us to develop and implement corrective interventions immediately to ensure that we are still on track to achieving our goals.
We at the CAA believe that the industry that we regulate is a very important partner in helping us achieving our mandate. We see the way ahead as a willing partnership in safety and security between the CAA and members of the aviation industry who, at the end of the day, have the duty of care to deliver operational safety and security. However, we recog-nise that we have some work to do on managing our relationships to produce effective partnerships.
A good regulator will exhibit specific behavioural attributes and these can best be summarised as follows. A good regulator will communicate and consult extensively with stakeholders. Its decisions will be consistent and predictable, based on
transparent processes. A good regulator will demonstrate fairness, good judgement and be flexible and responsive to the changing environment in which the aviation industry operates. It will be effective, efficient and timely in its operations and it will be accountable for its actions. In the provision of regulatory services the CAA must provide a high level of client service and treat clients with consideration and courtesy. Finally, it will be independent, enforcing civil aviation regulations, as it deems appropriate, while bearing in mind these expected standards of behaviour.
Above all a good regulator should command the trust and respect of those it regulates. It should act as a facilitator for those who are genuinely trying to do the right thing while retaining the ability to act swiftly and decisively against those who deliberately flout aviation safety and security regulations.
We, however, believe that ours is a dynamic industry that has responded well to the various challenges and opportunities that have presented themselves in South Africa and in the region. The industry functions within a well-regulated environment, and has matured in that it is continuously trying to conform, more than ever before, to the standards set up by ICAO and with most of the Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs) and Civil Aviation Technical Standards (CATs) published by the CAA.
The CAA mandate is to promote and enforce aviation safety and security in South Africa and on South African registered aircraft wherever they may be. We believe that we are succeeding in carrying out this mandate, and we do it in the most advanced aviation industry in most of Africa. However, as a regulatory authority, we want to avoid reaching a state of complacency. The CAA will continually look for best
practices on how to make the SA aviation industry much safer and secure, and this we can only achieve by working closely with the industry itself.
I wish to thank the outgoing Board for their strategic leadership and valuable contribution they made during their term in office. The solid foundation they laid will go a long way in assisting the CAA to become a dynamic and learning organisation. On behalf of my Management team, I also welcome the new Board which was appointed on 1 May 2005 and wish them the best in providing strategic leadership for this organisation and taking it forward into the future.
I would also like to acknowledge the most important resource that the CAA employs to meet its mandate – our own employees. I believe that our employees are critical to the ongoing development of a highly professional organisation that is ready to face the challenges of the future. And finally, I wish to sincerely thank the CAA’s Executive and Senior Management teams for the support they have given me as Acting CEO and the general level of enthusiasm and dedication they have shown in making the CAA a highly effective and efficient regulatory authority in an effort to enhance aviation safety and security in South Africa.
M G INDIA
ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
The CAA is subject to the provisions of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA) as amended. In terms of the Performance agreement between the Board and the Minister of Transport, the former have to adhere to the provisions of the Companies Act and King II on issues relating to governance and board members’ fiduciary duties.
The CAA is therefore committed to an open governance process whereby the public can be assured that in carrying out its mandate the CAA seeks to achieve compliance levels consistent with the interests of the organisation. The Company Secretary is responsible for ensuring consistent adherence to the provisions of the CAA ethics policy by both management and staff.
Board of Directors
During the year under review the Board consisted of seven non-executive board members and the Acting CEO. The members’ blend of various skills and experience positively contribute to the formulation of policy and decision making.
The Board monitors the CAA’s performance against the Five -Year Strategic Plan. Objectives associated with this plan are reviewed annually to ensure that they are still relevant to the industry within which the CAA operates.
The Board is supplied with full and timeous information to enable the directors to discharge their responsibilities. All directors have access to the advice of the Company Secretary and independent professional advice is available to directors in appropriate circumstances. The Board maintains relations with s takeholders through attendance of relevant industry liaison meetings and conferences.
The Board has delegated some of its powers to its Committees. However, in order to retain effective control, it still retains some powers, for example, approval of major expenditures and policies. The Board Committees submit quarterly reports to the Board detailing how they exercised their duties.
Finance and Audit Committee
This Committee consists of 3 non-executive members. The Committee’s functioning is detailed in the Audit Charter. The Committee ensures that the CAA has adequate internal controls, reviews financial accounts and deals with relevant accounting and auditing matters. The internal audit function has been outsourced to Sizwe Ntsaluba. The latter reports to the Audit Committee on the effectiveness of operational activities, business risks and systems of internal control.
Human Resource and Remuneration Committee
This Committee consists of 3 non-executive members. The Committee’s terms of reference ensure effectiveness of its functioning. The Commi-ttee meets quarterly to assess the overall remuneration guidelines, as well as to review the HR environment within the CAA to ensure that the organisation has sufficient skills to carry out its mandate. The Committee further reviews policies to ensure that they continually address the evolving needs of the organisation.
This Committee used to consist of 4 members but the number was reduced to 3, when one member resigned from the Board in November 2004. The Committee meets quarterly to deal with all matters affecting aviation safety and security. The Committee also oversees the functioning of the Occurrence Investigations Department and reviews accident reports. The Committee has reviewed various proposed amendments to legislation in order to ensure that they conform to best practices.
The main function of the Air Safety Operations Department is to oversee the overall safety of all aviation operations in South Africa. In order to achieve this, the department comprises 5 divisions each focussing on a specific area namely, Flight Opera-tions, Airworthiness, Certification, Aviation Medicine and Aviation Personnel Standards.
The role of the Flight Operations division is to regulate, control and promote aviation safety and to provide South Africa with safer skies. The areas of oversight include licensed aviation personnel, airports and aircraft. Clients include scheduled operators, non-scheduled operators, other operators such as crop sprayers, hot air balloons, etc, general aviation,
all organisations that represent any of the above-mentioned groups and international or regional organisations and bodies.
The functions of the Flight Operations division include:
· The verification and monitoring of information contained in the operations manuals of every operator to insure compliance with the Interna- tional Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the Civil Aviation Regulations (CARS) of 1998 and to ensure the viability of safe operations before the Department of Transport issues an Air Service License to the applicant;
· Inspection of operations to ensure that they take place in accordance with specifications contained in the approved operations manual;
· The issuing of Operating Certificate to operators
who comply with the specifications of the
operations manual and can provide a safe and
· The performance of follow up inspections at least
once a year to ensure minimum compliance with
the operations manuals.
The Flight Operations division also provides the
· Assisting in the investigation of accidents and
serious incidents when required and their
· Conducting route surveillance checks as required
by the Civil Aviation Regulations of 1997 and
· Conducting flight simulator checks and certification
at least once a year;
· Surveillance of cabin safety and flight engineers
at least once a year;
· Conducting inspections on behalf of the Air
Service Licensing Council;
· Advising the Accident Review Committee and
Air Service Licensing Council and carrying out
ad hoc inspections, interviews and prosecutions
on their behalf;
· Providing advice with regard to the training,
licensing and examination of pilots, cabin crew
and flight engineers;
· Providing information and advice to all
stakeholders to enable them to comply with the
requirements of the relevant regulations and
· Investigating alleged contraventions of the
Aviation Legislation including the Civil Aviation
· Following up on corrective action needed by any
operator or aviation personnel license holders
to ensure that they comply with the minimum
· Air Transport Operations: large aero planes
· Air Transport Operations: helicopters, helicopter
external load operations:
· Air Transport Operations: small aero planes;
· Agricultural Operations;
· Emergency Medical Services Operations;
· Cabin crew;
· Aviation Training Organizations; and
· Other CAA departments and divisions such
as Dangerous Goods, Aviation Medicine,
Airworthiness, Certification, AVSEC, etc.
The following chart indicates the number of registered operators, newly registered operators, followup
inspections and unannounced inspections that were conducted during the year:
Future challenges include the streamlining of administration surrounding the processing of applications
for the issuing and reissuing of Air Operators Certificates and Certificates of Airworthiness by introducing
a more efficient system of administration. The division also wants to increase the surveillance at airports
in South Africa by increasing the presence of inspectors at the airports. Loop runs also need to be finetuned
and training programmes finalised. An internal system is planned to improve the smooth flow of
work within the division.
The primary responsibility of the airworthiness Division
is to ensure that all aircraft that fly in our airspace
(including foreign registered aircraft) are safe and fit
In order to achieve this primary objective the Division
· Maintenance work is carried out by Approved
Maintained Organization (AMOs);
· Correct maintenance procedures are employed
in carrying out the maintenance;
· Licensed and certified maintenance personnel
are employed by the organizations in carrying
out the maintenance tasks;
In order to effectively undertake its mandate, the
division is organised in six (6) operational units:
Commercial Aviation – which is charged with
overseeing all aircraft that have a mass of above 5
700kg and are utilized in commercial activities. This
encompasses oversight on all major airlines both
foreign and local.
General Aviation which
oversees the operations of
all aircraft with a mass of 5 700kg and below.
oversees all the helicopters and
their maintenance organizations in the country.
Certified Aircraft which
is responsible for
overseeing the safety of all operations in sports, micro
lights, gliders, balloons, veteran and exmilitary
Avionics, Electrical and Instruments which
responsible for the oversight of all maintenance
organisations that are approved to conduct avionics,
instruments and electrical work.
Organisational Technical Auditing – which is
responsible for conducting independent renewal audits
on all Approved Maintenance Organisations (AMO).
The services rendered by the Airworthiness Division
include the following:
The division carries out inspections on aircraft for
the purposes of issuing Certificates of Airworthiness,
which show that the aircraft is safe to be operated.
Inspections are also carried out on NonType
aircraft (recreation fraternity) for the purposes of
issuing Authority to Fly permits.
Ad hoc inspections are also carried out on aircraft
to ensure that the aircraft are airworthy, have all the
required documentation on board and up to date with
their currency fee payments.
The division currently oversees a total of more tha
nine thousand (9 000) aircraft, of which more than
40% represents the Non Type Certified Aircraft
The division carries out inspections on
all organisations that perform maintenance work on
aircraft for the purposes of issuing them with
Adhoc inspections are also carried on all the
maintenance organisations in order to ensure that
at all given times, they abide by all maintenance
standards in conducting their work.
The Division currently overseas a total of four
hundred (400) Approved Maintenance Organisations,
with a sizeable number of them located outside the
boarders of South Africa.
Approvals of Manuals of Procedures
The division also approves Manuals of Procedures
for all the maintenance organisations, where they
specify how they carry out their maintenance work.
Minimum Equipment List Approvals (MEL)
The Division also approves Minimum Equipment
List for aircraft above 5 700kgs, wherein the
boundaries guidance of operating the aircraft with
certain defects are prescribed. The approval process
of MELs is undertaken jointly with the Flight
Flight Manual Approvals
The division also approves Flight manuals in
conjunction with the Flight Operations Division.
Basic Area Navigation BRNAV
The division issues BRNAV, which is a certificate
that allows the aircraft to be operated on specific
routes, especially those that are highly congested,
where they have to fly at certain heights in order to
fly the most direct route to their destination.
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RSVM)
In cases where South African registered aircraft are
operated in Europe or the United States of America
where there is a requirement for RSVM, the division
issues such approvals for the SA registered operators
to fly in those routes.
Avionics Modification Approvals
The Avionics Operational Unit is charged with
approving all avionics modifications on the aircraft (both aero planes and rotorcraft).
Issuing of Authority to Fly Permits
The division, through the NTCA operational unit,
issues Authority to Fly Permits for all aircraft operated
in the NTCA fraternity.
The division made a lot of progress towards attaining
its transformation targets. This was achieved by the
employment of more airworthiness inspectors falling
in the designated gender and race categories.
The year under review saw the training budget
allocated to the division increase two fold in order to
cater for newly appointed staff as well as to upgrade
the skills levels of experienced inspectors. A total of
fifteen inspectors were trained in thirty 30 months.
Trend Monitoring Analysis
In order to improve our safety oversight, the year
under review witnessed the birth of numerous
databases set up to assist in the generation of trend
monitoring related to various aspects dealing with
airworthiness matters that include:
∙ Defect reporting;
∙ Organizational surveillance audit results;
∙ Exemption tracking;
∙ The issuing of special flight permits requests;
∙ Incidents reports.
The division increased the level of general
surveillance (unannounced inspections) by more
than 60% during the period under review. Such
improvement was achieved as a result of increased
staffing levels and financial allocation.
Industry Liaison Workshop
A highly successful industry liaison workshop was
held at the ATNS Aviation Training Academy with
more than ninety representatives of Approved
M aintenance Organisations in Gauteng and
The industry is continually acquiring “state of the
art equipment” for aircraft, which requires the CAA
to be up to speed with these technological advances.
The industry we oversee has continued to grow at
an alarming rate. The aircraft register has grown by
15% in the past year and the number of new maintenance
organisations has also grown tremendously.
This growth must therefore be matched by a
corresponding increase of oversight by the CAA on
Another great challenge is to increase the skills of
newly recruited staff while at the same time
deepening the skills of experienced inspectors.
The Certification Division comprises the following three(3) Operational
Manufacturing Operational Unit
The Manufacturing Unit is responsible for the issuing of manufacturing, amendment and renewal approvals.
Manufacturing inspectors carry out both scheduled and nonscheduled
surveillance inspections on
approved manufacturing organisations to ensure compliance with CAA`s requirements.
The areas of oversight covered by the section during 2004/5 were as follows:
Certification Engineering Operational Unit
The Certification Engineering Operational Unit is responsible for original aircraft airworthiness determinations,
and qualification of onboard equipment. Certification engineers carry out “First of Type Acceptance”
approvals, aircraft modification approvals, flight performance evaluations, surveillance of design organisations,
issuing of special flight permits, issuing of importation letters and Supplementary Type Certificate (STCs)
Aircraft Registration Operational Unit
This Operational Unit is responsible for new registrations of aircraft, transfers of right of possession of
aircrafts and also administers the registration and/or discharge of mortgages. The maintenance of the South
African Civil Aircraft Register is performed by this Unit.
The following matrix summarizes the activities of the Aircraft Registration Operational Unit during the year
• Career paths were developed and staff training
needs were identified and a training program
• Divisional skills audits were conducted within all
• Three trainees were recruited for the manufacturing
• The heavy backlog reported last year was substantially
reduced thereby reducing CAA liability
with regard to unfinalised
• Staffing levels at both certification engineering
and manufacturing sections need to be addressed
in order to improve on service delivery;
• The number of manufacturing organisations is
increasing at an alarming rate;
• There has been a large increase in the number of
aircrafts in the NonType
Certified Aircraft domain;
• There is a heightened global demand for the
application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in
the civil aviation domain;
• Certification Division needs to actively participate
in industry workshops;
• Operational activities need to be integrated;
• The division’s training programme needs to be
implemented in order to meet ICAO's minimum
levels of competence;
• To hasten the promulgation of civil aviation
The Aviation Medicine (AvMed) division is responsible
• Co-ordination and over sight of medical
certification of licensed aviation personnel,
including foreign medical applicants and appeal
• The regulation of air ambulances;
• Medical aspects of accident investigations;
• Advising the Commissioner on issues related to
• Overseeing of medical training of cabin crew and
aviation medical officers;
• Enforcing all regulations pertaining to aviation
During the year under review, the division achieved
• All aviation medical officers who were appointed in
January 2005 completed their first year training
program. This is part of an ongoing skills deepening
programme within the organisation and has resulted
in efficiency and improved the quality of client
service rendered by the AvMed division;
• An external medical appeal panel was established
to research appeal cases and advise the
Commissioner. This resulted in the finalisation
of appeal cases that had been outstanding for
over a year in some instances;
• The medical aspects of cabin crew training were
also reviewed. The industry and relevant medical
author iti es parti cipat ed i n r eviewing the
curriculum. These inputs were forwarded to the
Standard Generating Body (SGB) responsible
for formulating Flight Attendant Unit Standards
for submission to the South African Qualifications
Authority (SAQA). The function of designating
cabin crew examiners was taken over from the
Aviation Personnel division. New examination
questions were developed and submitted to the
• There was a significant improvement in the process
of ensuring that foreign medical certificates were
submitted and appropriately and adequately
evaluated before the issuing of licenses;
• Oversight of Air Ambulances highlighted a number
of operators who did not comply with the requirements
of Part 138. This prompted communication
with various Provincial Health Departments to alert
them of the need to ensure that their aero medical
services tender specifications include complied with
the Civil Aviation Regulations (CARS), particularly
Part 138. All medical aids were also alerted of the
same in appointing aero medical service providers;
• The 52nd ICASM (The International Conference
for Aviation and Space Medicine) was hosted at
Sun City. The CAA sponsored the event and
worked closely with SASAEM (The South African
Society for Aerospace and Environmental
Medicine) in ensuring its success. Members of
AvMed division (co)chaired scientific sessions
at the event. The CAA also sponsored the
participation of ten black medical specialists who
were part of the medical appeal panel. This
formed part of a strategy to promote the
participation of previously disadvantaged groups
in aviation medicine. The Senior Manager:
Aviation Medicine was elected as an executive
member of SASAEM at the event.
The formulation of an HIV Protocol for licensed
aviation personnel that encompasses legal, health
and safety concerns remains a big challenge. Our
regulatory framework to ensure enforceable
legislation that keeps abreast of medical advances
also needs to be reviewed.
The Division still needs to establish regulations for
airport clinics; and also improve its communication
with medical institutions to ensure awareness of
The Division also needs to establish an Information
Technology (IT) system that will assist in inhouse
Future plans and prospects
• A number of workshops are planned to discuss
manifestations of various
illnesses and the appropriate management of
such cases. This will require a multidisciplinary
approach to the discussions; and therefore the
participation of the medical fraternity will be critical;
• A number of Part 138 (Air Ambulances) worshops
are planned for the forthcoming year. The aim
of the workshops will be to review the regulations
in order that service levels, personnel
qualifications, equipment etc., are standardised
in order to ensure quality and uniformity of
services rendered to patients. The final document
will align and cross reference the air ambulance
regulations with draft regulations governing
emergency medical services to be promulgated
by the Minister of Health. This will result in
cohesion and synergy; thus ensuring enforcing of regulations ;
• With the promulgation of the National Health Act
(2003), it has become imperative that medication
dispensed on board aircraft be addressed. This
will be done through workshops with relevant
• Wor kshops with Cabin Cr ew Designated
examiners will be held to develop and standardise
cabin crew training, as well as align moderation with
SAQA and the requirements of related authorities;
• Best practices on medical validations will be
researched int er nationall y, with a view to
developing medical standards and requirements
for South Africa.
Aviation Personnel Standards
The division consists of 3 operational units, namely,
Licensing and Examinations, Curriculum Development
and Testing Standards. The division’s primary
objectives are to set civil aviation safety and security
standards and ensure that all certificated aviation
personnel are trained to an internationally accepted
standard and that they remain competent and compliant
with the necessary requirements.
The following is a highlight of achievements realised
by this Division during the year under review:
• A database system for foreign students was
• An examination entry procedure for technical
employees was established;
• Two policies, nam ely, the ATP validation/
exemption policy for foreign pilots and cabin crew
rewrite examination policy were implemented;
• An audit was done on foreign and local CPL
licenses to verify compliance with examination
and license requirements;
• The AME exam ination structur e for online
examinations was created;
• A manual of procedure for Curriculum
Development was developed;
• 3728 licenses were issued;
• The Division also met its target for staff training;
• A panel of designated examiners was created.
A draft constitution for the appointment of
designated examiners was also drafted, and this
will be implemented as soon as it has been
approved by the relevant authorities;
• In an ongoing effort to improve the levels of
customer service, the turn around time for the
issuing of licenses was reduced from 1 hour to
• There is a need to upgrade the current version
of the Exam i nat ion soft war e p ro gra mm e;
• The re is a ne ed t o de vel op t he Ai rcr aft
Maintenance examinations online. However this
can only be achieved when the examination
softwar e pr ogra mm e has been upgraded;
• The division is also in the process of being trained
on AME issues to streamline the issuing of AME
• The Instructor’s examination also need to be
• The current database of questions need to be
further developed and reviewed;
• Part 61 of the Civil Aviation Regulations, 1997,
also need to be finalised; and
• A review of the database must still be finalised.
Future plans and prospects
• A plan is in the pipeline to introduce a plastic card
license type from 2006;
• To improve on service delivery, the current position
of Head of Operations (HOO): Licensing and
Examinations will be split into two to have one
HOO focus on Licensing and the other HOO on
• The ATC licensing is going to be moved from Air
Traffic Services to the Licensing section since all
aviation personnel licenses form part of the
responsibilities of this section; and
• There is also a plan to have the Instructor and the
AME examinations online.
The Air Safety Infrastructure(ASI) Department is responsible for following in South Africa airspace over high seas assigned by the International Civil Aviation Organisation(ICAO) to South Africa for the purposes of air traffic services:
•aerodrome safety compliance;
•airspace planning, usage control;
•air traffic services safety compliance;
•air navigation infrastructure safety
•procedures for air navigation services-operations;
•aeronautical information service; and
•environmental protection(aircraft noise and engine emissions) compliance.
Aerodrome Safety Compliance
The Aerodrome Safety Compliance division is
responsible for four key areas, namely: aerodrome
licensing and compliance; frequency spectrum
management; visual and radio navigation aids and
Aerodrome licensing and compliance
Licensed aerodromes are inspected annually to
verify compliance with safety regulations and for
renewal of licenses. The processing of applications
for initial issue of an aerodrome license entails
detailed inspections by engineering and aerodrome
operations inspectors and publication in the
Government Gazette for public comments, before the Commissioner may make a decision on the issue of the license. In between the annual inspections, the division undertakes adhoc surveillance inspections to ensure continued compliance.
Frequency spectrum management
The division manages the aeronautical High
Frequency (HF) and Very High Frequency (VHF)
spectrum on behalf of the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA).
Frequencies are allocated to applicants for aeronautical ground stations after consideration is given to the merits of the application as well as potential interference.
Frequencies in the HF spectrum are allocated in
accordance with the international allocation plan.
Air navigation infrastructure compliance
The division is responsible for overseeing compliance with standards with respect to visual and radio navigation aids. Most of the Unit’s work in this area relates to instrument landing systems (ILSs), VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR) and nondirectional beacons (NDBs).
The Division is responsible for control of obstacles at and around aerodromes as well as enroute. Each aerodrome is protected by an “obstruction free zone” which is internationally agreed and given effect in Civil Aviation Regulations to reduce the risks of aircraft collision with obstacles. Tall structures within and in the immediate vicinity of aerodromes are evaluated against applicable standards and approved if they meet applicable criteria, controlled or operation of aircraft adjusted. Highly prevalent particular in the offairport or enroute phases are transmission/relay towers for cellular telephone. Other structures that draw attention even if they are not necessarily tall, are those on hills and high points of mountains.
· All 136 licensed airports were inspected during the year;
· Safety Promotion Workshops were held at
Wonderboom and Oribi Airports, with focus on
·Consultation were continued with the Wonderboom and Mafikeng Airports, in order to maintain critical results areas in aerodrome safety;
·Eight emergency exercises were monitored in order to validate emergency procedure manuals;
·Emergency management systems were established at 5 airports;
·800 obstacles, most of them cellular telephone
radio masts, were evaluated for compliance with
relevant safety standards and approved;
·Two air shows were attended at Wonderboom and Grand Central airports; and
·Two additional staff members were appointed in the areas of Aerodrome Electrical and Apron
The main challenge for the Division is that not all aerodromes are licensed. Currently regulations provide for licensing of aerodromes used for commercial operations by large aircraft (over 5700 kg mass). An estimated 700 aerodromes mainly serving small aircraft, sports and recreation are unlicensed. The Division has taken concerns brought about by this situation seriously,and through extensive consultations, is currently developing relevant regulations. The regulatory approach in this area will include a sector (mainly those serving
exclusively sports, recreation and private) being required to register and have documented and verifiable accountability for safety by the aerodrome owner/operator. Implementation of this area of coverage will present obvious challenges of ensuring compliance,particularly given the delicate nature of the lower end of the industry in terms of financial capacity.
With aerodromes scattered all over the country, a decentralisation approach is being studied that will permit better surveillance, two way interaction with industry to improve safety, bearing in mind the high number of aerodromes that have to be under some form of regulation and the nature of the sector in question.
Other programmes will include rationalisation of activities related to aeronautical radio frequency control, which are the primary responsibility of ICASA but in which the CAA has a major role.
The Airspace Division is responsible for key areas: airspace planning and usage control, and air traffic services safety oversight. Aeronautical Information Services is also under this Division.
Airspace planning and usage control
This area of the Division focuses on the planning of the airspace to ensure accommodation by all bodies and persons who wish to practice the arts business of aeronautics, bearing in mind that the airspace is a national
asset for the benefit of all South Africans, including those who wish to access it for nonaeronautical purposes.
In planning the airspace and usage, guidance is taken from ICAO world and regional plans, in whose development the Division takes part through various mediums including international meetings, task forces, etc.
Long term plans as well short term airspace structural adjustments and allocations are undertaken through a consultative processes. The National Airspace Committee(NASCOM) is a statutory body whose membership is made up of various subsectors of the aviation industry
as well as the South African Air Force (SAAF).
The primary responsibility of NASCOM is to serve as a consultative body advising the Commissioner on matters of the airspace. It meets at least four times a year to consider its business, and from time to time forms working
groups to address special matters requiring smaller groups with certain levels of expertise. The ATS section provides the secretariat for NASCOM, which requires considerable time.
In its four meetings during the year under review,NASCOM considered, amongst others, the Johannesburg Special Rules Area, an application to restore the prohibited area over Pelindaba, the withdrawal of navigational aids at Bisho and Lyndenburg airports, revision of the Airspace Master Plan which was completed and signed by the Commissioner in December 2004,
and Lanseria Terminal Control Area.
Air Traffic Services
The Air Traffic Services (ATS) Unit approves and monitors the provision of Air Traffic Services at 19 South African airports as well as the training of ATS personnel at two Aviation Training Organisations (ATOs). The Air Traffic
Navigation Services Company (ATNS) is currently the sole provider of ATS in South Africa. There are two organisations offering ATS training, namely ATNS and the South African Air Force (SAAF).
The ATS Unit is also responsible for the development of terminal instrument flight procedures (IAPs) in accordance with ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation
ServicesOperations (PANSOPS). Activities in this area include the design and verification checks of IAIPs, the amendment of aeronautical charts and the preparation of aeronautical data for publication, in support of AIS.
ATS personnel are also directly licensed by this unit. A total of 239 Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs) and 142 Air Traffic Service Assistants (ATSAs) were licensed by the CAA at the end of the year a considerable increase over the previous year. There were 13 licensed training organisation instructors.
Each of the 19 South African Air Traffic Service Units(ATSUs) with current Approvals, and the two approved ATOs, were inspected twice during the year, as perschedule (see table on the next page).
One inspection for annual renewal and one
unannounced surveillance inspection were carried out on each ATSU and ATO. All Units and training facilities were found to be largely if not wholly compliant with the Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs). A number of previous audit findings were rectified by the responsible parties. One ATS Unit was inspected twice for monitoring purposes.
Activities in PansOps SubUnit included verification of data for 310 instrument flight procedures and related charts, the amendment of 5 World Aeronautical Charts (WAC) and the preparation of various graphics, 28 Supplements, various Aeronautical Information Package (AIP) amendments and Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs) for publication, and the updating of the World Geodetic
System of 1984 (WGS84) survey data for 28 aerodromes. The Procedures Design Forum met three times and two Charting Meetings were held, with attendees from ATNS and SAAF.
A total of 122 aviation activity requests (balloon
releases, advertising blimps, firework displays) were
processed; 610 ATS licensing transactions were
made and 1354 incident reports were received,
cl ass ified and forwarded to the Occurrenc e
The ATS section also attended various meetings, including coordination meetings with the ATE Company in Midrand regarding the operation of their Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in civil airspace, as well as meetings at the Department of Transport (DOT); attendance at the 35 th International Civil Aviation OrganiSation (ICAO) Assembly Session.
Other forums attended included seminars on the
implementation of the forthcoming Reduced VerticalSeparation Minima (RVSM) as required by ICAO,followed by RVSM Task Force meetings in April (Nairobi), July (Lagos) and November (Dakar). The matter regarding carriage of transponders in certain airspaces was also discussed in meetings between the Commissioner, ATS Section, ATNS and the aviation industry, held at ATNS Head Quarters.
The provision of aerodrome flight information service(AFIS) by ATNS at Grand Central airport continued to be monitored by means of surveillance inspections, although no approval by the CAA is currently required.
Safety levels have improved significantly.
The Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs) and Civil
Aviation Technical Standards (CATs) continue to be reviewed and revised when a requirement is identified, for example, during audits as well as during liaison with the industry and the service provider.
The old analogue telex system with a connection to the ATNS Motseta (Aeronautical telex and messaging system) was replaced with a digital line and a dedicated personal computer (PC) Motseta is an enhanced aeronautical telex interface which replaces the obsolete teletypewriters.
Total revenue for this period was R2,494,728
consisting of R910,776 direct revenue, R147,072 shared revenue, R1,070,160 indirect revenue and R366,720 for services rendered on behalf of the Department of Transport.
Due to very few and low volume requirements for development of instrument flight procedures, there is hardly anything that can be equated to a pool of expertise in this area. Human resource succession for competencies in the PANSOPS area is therefore typically a challenge. Other challenges are in the areas of client education where there are new
regulatory requirements, such as in the provision of AFIS, and in the introduction of new airspace usage structures such as the reduced vertical separation minima (RVSM).
Aeronautical Information Services
The function of Aeronautical Information Services(AIS) is to provide aeronautical information necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of air navigation. In meeting this mandate, AIS disseminates aeronautical information concerning the entire territory of South Africa in accordance with the standards and recommended practices of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).
Information handled by AIS may vary widely in terms of the duration of its applicability. The urgency attached to information is handled differently depending on its urgency, operational significance,scope, volume and length of time it will remain valid and relevant to users.
Aeronautical information is published as an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package and composed of the following elements: Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) including amendment service, Aeronautical Information Publication Supplements (AIP SUP), Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC),and checklists and lists of valid Notice to Airmen
·Aeronautical Information Publication Amendments are published quarterly in January, April, July and October. These contain permanent changes or additions to the information contained in the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
·Aeronautical Information Circulars are published on a monthly basis. These are intended to notify our industry in advance about major changes in procedures or facilities, information of an advisory nature or information concerning administrative or Legislative matters.
·AIP Supplements are published monthly as part of the Integrated Aeronautical Information
Package (IAIP). These contain information on
temporary changes to the AIP of long duration
which requires extensive explanation or graphics.
·Checklists and lists of valid NOTAM are also
published monthly as part of the IAIP. NOTAM
is information i ssued promptly whenever
information is of a temporary nature and of short duration or when operationally significant
permanent changes or temporary changes of
long duration are made at short notice.
Other Responsibilities of AIS include:
·Handling application requests for Location
Indicators through ICAO regional office;
·Handling applications for allocation of 3 letter
designators for aircraft call signs with ICAO;
·Handling applications for ICAO 5 letter
designators as required;
·Handling applications for Parachute jumping
·Integrated Aeronautical Information Packages
(IAIPs) were published monthly as scheduled
and in accordance with the Aeronautical
Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC)
System. AIRAC is a system aimed at advance
notification based on common effective dates of
circumstances that necessitate significant
changes in operating practices;
· The Aeronauti cal Information Publ ication
amendments were published during January,
April, July and October 2004 as scheduled;
· A total of 376 applications for parachute jumps
· Aeronautical information needs to be fully
automated for the purpose of improving its speed, accuracy, efficiency and costeffectiveness. This process will be implemented in stages. Currently, AICs are available on the CAA website, and the plan is to make the AIP Supplements and finally the AIP available on the web and in other
Current processes for the production and
distribution of aeronautical information need to
be streamlined in order to meet deadlines and
ensure timeous distribution of information; in part
this requires considerable education of the
information source bodies.
·Training and development of staff remains within international standards while advancing human resource transformation.
In order to continue to reduce the costs of putting information in the hands of the users, the plan is to have all aeronautical information to eventually be published and distributed electronically in future. Apart from cutting down on costs, the electronic distribution will also ensure that this information reaches its recipients in short space of time. However, hard copies will still be made available to those clients or users who do not have access to electronic media or who prefer paper copies.
In the coming year the AIS section plans to participate in the regional AIS / MAP forums and global AIS / MAP activities, in order to advance capacity and deepen competencies.
Compliance and verification of air navigation infrastructure is further undertaken by the Flight Inspection Unit which checks the compliance of signals in space emitted by the radio navigation aids.
The Flight Inspection Unit operates a state of the flight inspection system (FIS), one of only two of such calibre in SubSaharan Africa, to check that the signal in space radiated by a navigation aid (navaid) is compliant with prescribed minimum standards. As a platform for the FIS, the Unit uses Citation 550 SII executive jet which offers marked flexibility of operational simplicity and quick access at relatively low cost. The Unit has spare capacity which is made available to SADC States.
· There were 171 planned inspections for the year but only 156 were performed. The predicted flying hours were 353.5 and 340.2 were actually flown. Targets could not be achieved due to equipment and aircraft problems experienced during October and November 2004 as well as in January 2005. This resulted in inspections being performed outside their expected intervals.
Over the past year, the following navigational aids were flight inspected:
The predicted revenue for the year was R7 423 500 and the actual revenue generated was R6 912 292. The reason for this shortfall was due to equipment and aircraft problems already mentioned, resulting in inspections being performed outside their expected intervals.
Special projects and highlights
· The new VOR at Lanseria was commissioned
during April 2004;
· The new ILS on rwy 03R at JHB INT was
commissioned during June 2004;
· The new ILS on rwy 21L at JHB INT was
commissioned during August 2004;
· The new ILS on rwy 24 at Durban INT was
commissioned during December 2004;
· The new ILS on rwy 29 at East London was
commissioned during February 2005;
· Even though equipment and aircraft problems
hampered inspections, an effort was made to catch up as much as possible once the unit was
The main challenge facing the FIU is the minimisation of disruptions due to equipment or aircraft down times.
Environmental Protection Compliance
The objective of this Section is to ensure that the development and operation of aircraft is in compliance with the national policy on aircraft noise and engine emissions and regulations, to respond to complaints from the public regarding environmental issues, and to coordinate as necessary to ensure the minimisation of the negative impact of noise and engine emissions.
In the past year the Section participated in a number of forums on the development of national policy, on international standards development and attended the 35 th Session of the ICAO Assembly in September 2004, as well as two workshops on “Improving Environmental Capacity at Airports” held in Montreal Canada and Florida, USA.
As South Africa is a member of the ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), the Section continued to interact with the Committee secretariat and other committee members, on such matters that are feasibly to address through the use of electronic communication only.
The Aviation Security department (AVSEC) was
established by the CAA to give more focus on issues related to aviation security. The overall functions of AVSEC are:
· To assist in the development and implementation
of the National Aviation Safety/Security Plan
(NASP) in conjunction with the Chief: Civil Aviation Security;
· To ensure the sustainability of security standards by airports, airlines, cargo agents and navigational facilities to safeguard civil aviation operations against acts of unlawful interference;
· To conduct inspections and audits on airports,
airlines and cargo agents;
· To ensure safe transportation of dangerous goods by air;
· To investigate security related incidents and
The work of AVSEC is carried by three main divisions, namely: Dangerous Goods & Cargo Security; Airlines and Airports Security; and Minimum Information Security Standards (MISS), as well as the Research and Development section which was established in
Dangerous Goods and Cargo Security
This division is responsible for ensuring the safe
transportation of dangerous goods by air and the prevention of any unlawful acts of interference againstcivil aviation; as well as to identify and pursue effective
and proportionate precautions to reduce the risk of terrorist atrocities in the supply chain of dangerous goods and cargo.
On 01 October 2004 the Dangerous Goods Section was transferred over from the Flight Operations Division (Air Safety Operations Departement) and merged with Cargo Security to form the Dangerous Goods and Cargo Security Division.
Presently until promulgation of Part 108 (Cargo
Security Regulations) of the Civil Aviation Regulations of 1997, as amended, the Division is responsible for acquiring and retaining all resources demanded by the Senior Manager to regulate, monitor, enforce and promote aviation safety and security and a culture of awareness in the aviation industry to enhance the safety and security in the transportation of dangerous
goods and cargo by air.
The Division works with the following clients:
• Scheduled airline operators;
• Cargo Handling Organisations;
• Ramp Handling Organisations;
•Dangerous Goods Aviation Training Organisations;
• Airport Authorities; and
• Dangerous Goods Packing Organisations.
The Division undertakes scheduled, adhoc
and followup inspections of the above organisations to ensure that Safety and Security Standards and Recommended Practices of the International Civil Aviation Organisation
(ICAO) and Civil Aviation Regulations (CARS) of 1997, as amended, are complied to. In addition, the Division
is also responsible for:
• Processing of Exemption and Special Approval
• Processing of dangerous goods training Part 141applications;
• Dangerous goods incident / accident investigations;
• Technical advice to the aviation industry;
• Proposed amendment to regulations;
• Approval of the dangerous goods component of Flight Operations Manuals;
• Promotion of safety among our stakeholders; and
• Attendance of industry meetings.
During the year under review, the division carried out the following inspections and other activities related
to PART 92:
• Incorporation of dangerous goods security into the proposed cargo security regulations;
• Classification of high profile dangerous goods that could possibly be used to commit unlawful acts of interference against civil aviation;
• Effective penalty system for dangerous goods and cargo security violations;
• Finalisation of a cooperative agreement with the national nuclear regulator to ensure the orderly transport of radioactive material by air;
• Closer interface with the Department of Transport (DOT) regarding the transportation of dangerous goods by other modes of transport;
• Safety promotion among stakeholders within the industry to make them aware of the dangers of undeclared dangerous and incorrectly packed
dangerous goods being offered for transport by air;
• Setting of dangerous goods training unit standards with the Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA); and
• Ongoing oversight to ensure sustainability of
For the coming financial year, the Division plans to:
·Work very closely with the Steering Committee of the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) on the
United Nations (UN) initiative of a Global Harmonising System for classification and labelling of chemicals;
·Finalise the approval of a fee structure for air operators to transport dangerous goods in classes 1 to 9 to,
from, through or in South Africa;
·Formulate a fee structure for the inspection of ramp handling organisations, cargo handling organisations
and packing organisations;
·Continue with the promotion of safety to enhance aviation safety and security standards;
·To drive the implementation of the Cargo Security Programme after it has been promulgated; and
the personnel in the Division to deal effectively with dangerous goods and cargo security.
Airlines and Airports Security
The division is primarily responsible for:
Ensuring that the basics of aviation security in the areas of airports and airlines are in place;
· Growing the Division into a knowledge intensive
aviation security centre through research and
· Ensuring that National Aviation Safety / Security
Program (NASP) is current and caters for the
aviation security needs of our country. This entails constantly reviewing it and rectifying weaknesses in the programme to ensure its continued effectiveness;
· Recommending to the Minister the introduction or amendment of civil aviation safety and security legislation;
· Recommending and advising the Minister on any international agreement with another state,
government or international organization;
· Working closely with other Divisions in areas related to aviation safety and security;
· Executing a Ministerial order issued in terms of
section 6 of the Civil Aviation Act;
· Defining and allocating the tasks of the civil aviation security programme;
· Establishing mechanisms for cooperation among different organisations responsible for executing the civil aviation security program;
· Ensuring that airports and airlines are able to
execute the civil aviation security program;
· Reviewing for approval all security programmes of airlines and international / domestic airports;
· Ensuring that airports provide the necessary facilities such as office space, communication facilities, suitable security facilities, training facilities, etc.;
· Ensuring that aviation security measures are
integrated into the design and construction of new facilities;
· Developing and implementing a National Aviation Security Training Programme and working closely with other institutions offering aviation security training programmes; and
· Administering all the civil aviation laws specified in the Civil Aviation Act.
· The 5th Amendment to the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations of 1981 was approved by the Minister of Transport towards the end of the year;
· The appointment of the Chief of Civil Aviation
Security by the Minister of Transport was finalised, as required by the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations
· The National Aviation Safety / Security Plan (NASP) was approved by the Minister of Transport, thereby providing direction and legal stand;
· All oversight activities as planned for the year were successfully completed;
· Staff within the Division were successfully trained in order to equip them with technical skills; and mentoring for PDIs also took place in order to bring them up to speed with aviation security issues;
· The division also facilitated an ICAO training course in aviation security which was attended and successfully completed by AVSEC personnel, both within and outside the CAA, in September 2004;
· There was constant liaison with all stakeholders on aviation security issues such as the National Aviation Security Committee (NASC), Local Airport Security Committee (LASC), Safety Committees,etc.
· 10 airports were identified and recommended to the Minister of Transport as designated airports which had to fully comply with the National Aviation Security Plan;
· The CAA is now represented in the African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) in the avsec panel of auditors; and
· Avsec educational and promotional campaigns
were carried out at identified airports that lacked behind on security issues.
· The National Aviation Safety / Security Plan needs to be successfully implemented;
· Part 121 needs to be amended to include Security;
· There is a need to develop Minimum Aviation
Security Standards to cater for nondesignated
· The Sky Jacking Policy also needs to be finalised;
· Cockpit Security legislation needs to be finalised and implemented;
· There is a need for the CAA to be represented in Bilateral Agreements processes;
· Hold Baggage Security legislation must also be
· The Crisis Management Plan for airports and
airlines needs to be finalized;
· There is also a need to increase and enhance our oversight activities in order to fully comply with the National Aviation Safety / Security Plan;
· Civil aviation legislation pertaining to aviation
security needs to be reviewed;
· In order to fulfill the AVSEC mandate, the Division will have to increase its capacity, in terms of people and resources;
· A fine structure for noncompliance
needs to be developed and implemented as a component of enforcement.
· An area that needs to be finalised is reviewing the movement of passengers and cargo at airports to enhance the existing security measures;
· The CAA needs to decentralise and establish
regional offices in order to be closer to our clients;
· In future we need to put greater emphasis on
cooperation with our counterparts in the SADC
· The legislation needs to be constantly reviewed to ensure its currency and relevance to the changing civil aviation landscape.
Minimum Information Security Standards (MISS)
The Minimum Information Security Standards Division(MISS) was established to provide a total security function for the CAA as well as to external stakeholders.
In the short time that the Division was in operation in AVSEC, significant progress has been made in terms of meeting the mandate of MISS.
· 10% of CAA staff, including management, as well as external service providers went through the security vetting process;
· A number of policies and guidelines were
developed and implemented, namely: the security vetting guidelines; documents security guidelines; key control guidelines and the internal security
· Approval and support by staff in general for the developed policies;
· To ensure that security policies are applied
consistently throughout CAA, as well as to educate staff about the importance of abiding by all the security policies and procedures. All these will be addressed by the Division during the next financial year.
The Occurrence Investigations (OI) Department is
responsible for carrying out accident prevention
activities in South Africa. This is achieved through:
∙ Investigating all aircraft accidents and serious
∙ Generating safety recommendations from
accident reports to prevent reoccurrence
continually monitoring the implementation of
∙ Disseminating aviation safety information to the
South African aviation industry and informing
them about accident rates and trends;
∙ Promoting aviation safety within the industry;
∙ Monitoring and benchmarking accident trends
with the international aviation community to make
sure that South Africa is on par.
The CAA is mandated to investigate the causes of
aircraft accidents and incidents in South Africa under
Annex 13 of the ICAO Chicago Convention and Part
12 of the Civil Aviation Regulations. South Africa,
as a signatory state to the Chicago Convention of
7 December 1944, is responsible for adhering to the
provisions of this Convention. The OI Department,,
which is semiindependent
from the CAA, carries
out these activities on behalf of the Department of
The OI Department consists of three divisions:
∙ Accidents Investigation;
∙ Incidents Investigation; and
∙ Safety Promotion.
A total of 154 accidents were recorded this year,
compared to 150 last year. Although this represents
only a marginal increase, it means a lot in terms of
safety within the aviation industry. 197 safety
recommendations (SR) were generated from 13
Internal Accident Review Committee (IARC)
meetings, in which 217 accident reports were
approved for release.
Besides completing accident report backlog,
productivity increased. 217 accidents reports were
completed and released as compared to 171 the
previous year, as indicated in the table below:
Accidents recorded for the year 2004 / 2005 (per province):
The accident report backlog, which emanated from staff shortages and resignations, was eliminated.
Accidents recorded for the year 2004 / 2005 (per province):
The above is a record of accidents that occurred during the 2004/5 financial year. A total of 154 accidents
were recorded as compared to 150 the previous year. 25 fatalities occurred as opposed to 18 which
occurred the previous year.
The graph below shows the % of aircraft accidents against the aircraft register at the end of December 2004:
The aircraft register increased by an average of 5% per month during 2004. However, it is not pleasing to
see an increase, albeit, marginal, of accidents during this period. A safety seminar will be convened with
the industry to determine a reasonable “accident reduction” rate over a ten year period.
Other than seasonal reasons, we cannot find the cause for a sharp increase of actual aircraft accidents in
May and November 2004. We are, however, monitoring this trend.
The graph below looks at how South Africa compares with other countries with regard to fatalities against
accidents. From this, we can see that South Africa is the third highest, with the USA being the highest and
New Zealand taking the second lead. However, the reader must bear in mind that this comparison is only an
estimate, except for South Africa, since other countries had not yet updated their information at the end of
our financial year.
During the past two years we have seen an increase in human factors as the main causes of accidents.
However, actual accidents have been on the decrease, and so have fatal accidents.
The chart below shows and classifies causal factors during the past six years. Human factor remains the
prime cause of accidents, and this has been the trend internationally.
In order to address the issue of accidents in South Africa, the department will be holding a
safety seminar with the industry, with the aim of determining a safety percentage target for accident reduction
in South Africa. The seminar will also try to identify measures to put in place to achieve that target.
The division receives information on reported incidents and analyses them. The incident reports are received
from Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN), from operators and also from other agencies
such as Airports Company South Africa (ACSA) and Air Traffic and Navigation Services Company (ATNS).
These incidents are then compared with aviation activity during that period.
Below is the total number of reported incidents compared with the air traffic movement (ATM) during the
2004 calendar year:
The chart below is a graphic representation of incidents and their causal factors. This trend is the same
as accidents recorded during May and June 2004 where there was also a sharp increase. During the month
of November, the same increase also occurred. Other than seasonal reasons, we do not think there could
be any other reason.
Ten Year Comparison
The table below compares incidents reported during the past ten years. The safety seminar will also
decide on the target for reduction. What is worrying with regard to incidents is that technical reasons are
the main causal factors, especially with scheduled operators.
The steady increase in incidents can be attributed to the growth of the South African Aircraft Register and an increase in air traffic movement over the past year, the latter shown in the table below:
Accident figures over the last twelve months showed a slight reduction as compared to the previous year. General Aviation (GA) experienced the most accidents whose probable causes ranged from fuel exhaustion to technical problems.
To address this, a total of 34 safety promotion workshops and presentations were conducted with general aviation, particularly with the aero clubs.
Our safety magazine, Safety Link, was also
produced three times last year to address issues of aviation safety. The topics and articles were mainly based on safety recommendations emanating from
Confidential Aviation Hazard Reporting System(CAHRS)
The number of reports received suggests some measure of confidence in the system. A total of 104 reports were received through email, fax and telephone and 54 of these were investigated and closed, while the rest are still outstanding.
The kind of reports from the public, competitors, professional aviation bodies and aviation individuals were as follows:
· The public or passengers reported incidents such as airprox (air proximity), noise and low flying,fuel leakages and the Huey helicopter operations.
· Competitors reported incidents such as unsafe
operations, not adhering to safety standards and non compliance.
· Professional aviation personnel, on the other
hand, reported incidents such as non compliance, cutting of corners, forced to approve in order to avoid delays (irrespective of safety), release of unairworthy aircraft and violation of flight duty time.
In order to improve the system, CAHRS will be relaunched in September 2005.
Our relationship with our Namibian counterparts
continued to bear fruit, which included exchange
programmes and visits to share best practices. We intend to bring more members of SADC on board, particularly those who have signed the harmonization of regional standards agreement.
We also hosted our colleagues from the Bureau of Accident Investigation (BEAFrance),
and fruitful exchange of experiences took place, such as how the Concorde accident was reviewed. We also plan to have an exchange programme with this Bureau should the budget allow us to do so.
The OI Department continues to train and develop its staff in order to deepen their skills and thus make them better inspectors. A number of courses were attended, such as the Safety Management Course for Accident Investigators and the Fire Mishap and Accident Investigation course presented by the highly admired University of Southern California. These courses were both presented in South Africa, and other than the CAA, other organizations such as SAA and SAAF also sent their candidates. Other companies such as Rolls Royce from the USA were also in the country to train our people on their engines.
The benefit of bringing these courses to South Africa rather than attending them overseas is that it is very cost effective to do so and it also allows a larger number of people to attend.
Three of our investigators, including a female
candidate, completed their Private Pilot License (PPL) as part of ICAO requirements.
Occurrence Investigations was involved in a number of social responsibility programmes during the year, aimed at previously disadvantaged schools. A number of schools from Gauteng, Limpopo and NorthWest were visited in order to expose them to a number of career options that exist in aviation. These
programmes were taken jointly with the Air Traffic and Navigation Services Company (ATNS), the Airports Company South Africa (ACSA), South African Airways (SAA), the South African Air Force (SAAF) and the Department of Transport (DOT). More of these activities will be undertaken in the coming financial year.
Our main challenge is to substantially reduce the rate of civil aviation accidents in South Africa, in order to establish South Africa as one of the safest destinations in the world. This is absolutely necessary, especially for the country’s tourism industry as well as the forthcoming Soccer World Cup.
Our other challenges include:
· Establishing an independent accident
investigations board, separate from the CAA;
· Encouraging improved cooperation with SADC
and the rest of the African continent;
· Skills deepening and capacity building for our
· Finding a permanent hangar base or space for
The Corporate Services Department renders all the support services the CAA requires in order to fulfil its mandate effectively. These services include Human Resources (HR), Finance, Information Technology (IT), Client Services and Corporate Service Support.
Human Resources (HR)
Over the last two years the CAA has experienced an increase in staff numbers, from approximately 160 to 273 employees. The number of black employees has increased by 8.89%, while that of females increased by 7.66% during this period. As a result, this growth has affected a number of issues within the organization, such as organizational culture and identity; mentoring, coaching and diversity; skills depth and breath; training and development; communication; industrial relationships, conflict resolution and unionization; careerpath management, succession planning and retention; as well as age, gender and riskbehaviour management.
It is anticipated that the organization will continue to grow over the next three years. In addition, decentralization, which is aimed at bringing the CAA closer to its clients, will increase management responsibility and introduce new challenges into the human environment.
Industrial and union relations
Industrial relations (IR) is a managed function of HR. It is aimed at creating a more human approach to people management. Fostering this is done through early IR specialist involvement in potential disciplinary matters, ensuring and advising on approved procedures, ensuring that all parties understand policies, employee counseling and advice.
A Bargaining Forum was established in terms of the recognition agreement with the Public Servants Association (PSA). During the period under review, the South African Trade and Allied Workers Union (SATAWU) became the majority union.
The division focuses on areas such as HR policies and procedures, early dispute resolution mechanisms, trust building, employment equity and diversity
Training and Development
In order to meet the strategic intent of capacity building within the organisation, the HR division will be developing an inhouse training unit during 2005/2006. The training and development strategy will focus on the objective of skills deepening. A strengthening of core competencies will take place in a planned and coordinated manner, to ensure that the skills profile of the organization will enable the CAA to successfully carry out its mandate and enhance
An amount of R953 000 was recovered from the Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA) as reimbursement for the training given to employees during the previous year. This money will continue to be used to further enhance the skills profile of employees through a focussed training and development programme.
In order to fast track employment equity (EE) within the CAA, a learnership programme was introduced in the form of trainee employees and bursary students. This managed programme will be enhanced through mentorship and coaching programmes. These are aimed at obtaining
maximum benefits from the existing ‘pockets of experience’ created by the sociopolitical imbalance of the past.
Specific intervention programmes were introduced, aimed at areas that needed urgent attention, such as Air Safety Operations and Infrastructure.
The learnership program implemented in 2004 entailed formalising the career paths required for any individual to obtain a qualification in aviation, while at the same time gaining practical experience. This would map out what the required competencies are for each level of progression. Partnerships with local historically disadvantaged tertiary institution (HDTI), the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) and the Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA) will play a critical role in this programme. The CAA will use its facilities and resources to enhance the skills profile of learners.
During the year under review six learners were placed, of which one was permanently employed in the Corporate Services department.
Cadets and Trainee Flight Operations Inspectors were employed late during the year, but certain weaknesses were identified in the selection process. However, an intervention by HR was initiated to ensure the success of this programme.
During the year under review, the CAA was a proud recipient of an award from the Department of Trade and Industry for promoting and creating employment.
Notwithstanding the various HR challenges facing the CAA, the first phase of change was successfully achieved. This has set the base upon which competency deepening can take place, and further progress in Human Resource Development (HRD) can be done.
The Finance division is responsible for the recording, interpreting and reporting of the activities of the organization in financial terms and protecting its assets.
The overarching strategic objective of the Finance division is to operate a financial model that supports a going concern. A new financial system, Great Plains, was implemented on 1 April 2004 incorporating the restructuring of financial procedures that ensured an overall improvement in the internal control environment.
Revenue Management was decentralized to the
operational departments during June 2004 to ensure that the billing and issuing of products are linked. The organization further managed to achieve the planned targeted retention based on the existing five year funding model. Amendments to the Aircraft Passenger Safety
Charge Regulations were made that resulted in a major improvement in the collection of this charge on scheduled departing passengers.
The Airworthiness and Finance divisions embarked on a project to recover outstanding currency fees. The outcome of this project was that the billing of currency fees has been automated between the financial and aircraft registration database. Two fixed term investments were also made during the year. The Finance division successfully managed the administration of all asset movements during the office move.
The existing funding model has become outdated due to the dynamics in the aviation industry and in the organization. The revision of this model will be done in cooperation with the Department of Transport and the industry, which will incorporate an overall study of costs
based on an Activity Based Costing Model. This project should ensure that all revenue streams are aligned with the longterm strategic objectives and business plans. The approval of the Minister of Transport should also be obtained for changes in the funding model as well as increased funding for the investigation of accidents and incidents. The Finance division will also embark on a project to integrate financial procedures and activities with operational procedures to ensure an effective control environment. These activities will be coupled with identified procedures that will be automated.
Future plans and prospects
The future plans of the Finance division are to ensure that the organization generates revenue based on an updated funding model as agreed by all relevant role players. It is also imperative to ensure that the overall control environment is effective and that revenue collection is done within a structured environment. Future plans will incorporate the continuous training and development of staff in order to produce credible real time financial information.
Information Technology (IT)
The biggest challenge the IT division faced during this financial year was the CAA relocation from Brooklyn to Midrand. The entire move had to be done in less than two months. All infrastructures in terms of network cabling, PABX systems, telephone lines and switches were completed within the two months time frame and additional work outside this time frame was completed by November 2004. Most of the tasks were carried out during and after working hours, including weekends. All work carried out was achieved through dedicated and
committed staff members as well as contracted suppliers.
The server rooms and patch rooms were also equipped with gas control units in the event of fire as well as airconditioning units. These rooms are equipped with environmental monitoring equipment. This equipment sends out an email and sms to the IT staff informing
them if there are any irregularities in these rooms. This system is also monitored by an external company which also informs the IT division if there are any irregularities.
A new exchange server (for email)
was successfully implemented within one week of installation. This was a very seamless integration which was done during normal working hours and had very little or no interruption to user access.
A helpdesk system was also implemented to better monitor, control, evaluate and improve the services of the IT division.
The IT division embarked on a major security project in order to improve and effectively manage the systems and controls in the IT environment, such as the Blue Coat Software, which is used to effectively control and manage internet access and usage; and the Vidius Port
Authority, which stops information leaks and prevents confidential data from unauthorized distribution, both inside and outside the organization. Other projects related to security are still currently under way.
The CAA has signed a service level agreement with Microsoft, which also includes software assurance. This agreement enables the CAA to purchase Microsoft software at a cheaper rate and also qualifies the CAA to receive upgrades and the latest software at no additional cost.
The CAA also donated over 200 desktops, laptops, printers and scanners to SAGDA, which is a nonprofit organization.
The mandate of the Client Services division is to develop and implement a comprehensive Customer Relationship Management (CRM) strategy, which entails the development of a client centric environment which is focused on the customers’ needs. This will be achieved by inter alia, the reviewing of the current business
processes and streamlining them for improved service delivery, but without negating the CAA’s regulatory responsibilities. This will include the implementation of technology in order to expedite processing of applications and queries.
A Client Service Centre was established on 1 October 2004, and since then the number of clients visiting the CAA on a daily basis increased by 300%. Turn around time in terms of application processing was also reduced from 2 hours to 45 minutes, a vast improvement which has been greatly appreciated by clients.
Current challenges that need attention include
engendering a client focused culture within the
organization; ensuring that the correct internal/ external balance in terms of the CRM plan is correctly evaluated; and training of Client Services staff to acquire the required levels of competency.
Future Plans and Prospects
Plans for the 2005/2006 financial year include the implementation of a Customer Relationship Management(CRM) Strategy; the implementation of a Call Centre; and the streamlining of all business processes that involve interface with our clients.
Corporate Service Support
The Corporate Service Support consists of two units, Procurement and Administration and Library and Registry.
Procurement and Administration
The mandate of the Procurement and Administration division is to provide a good support service to the whole organization through facilities management and support
The CAA relocation of offices from Brooklyn to Midrand in September 2004 was successfully coordinated with all the role players. The entire move was completed within six weeks and all the departments were functioning from the 1 October 2004 with little or no problems.
The procurement of goods and services is done according to our Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) policy, which gives preference to previously disadvantaged groups. The CAA’s total expenditure in terms of
percentage on BEE for the past financial year amounted to 68.9%. The CAA is also working towards developing and implementing an empowerment programme aimed
at Small, Micro and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs).
• The current Procurement Policy needs to be formally reviewed in order to cater for the supply chain management processes;
• A plan has been put in place to decentralize the activities of the organization in order for the CAA to be much more visible and closer to its clients. This exercise will bring its own challenges in terms of resource planning and allocation;
• Procurement targets need to be improved to be in line with our policy. We have therefore set a target of 40% minimum BEE equity ownership for the coming financial year;
• A paperless environment needs to be developed and implemented for the Records Management Section. The plan is to put a system in place where all files will be accessed electronically. This means all files will be archived and only made available in hard copies when requested by law;
• Contracts with all service providers need to be put in place in order to have Service Level Agreements which work for the benefit of the organization;
• A userfriendly facilities management system needs to be developed and implemented.
Library and Registry
The key functions of the CAA Technical Library include the following:
• Development, Processing and Maintenance of the Library collection, in order to ensure availability and easy access to aviation information.
• Provision of Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI),
• Current Awareness Service (CAS),
• Reference service to staff and clients of the CAA;
• Marketing of Library material.
In addition, the Library also has the responsibility of keeping various manuals up to date, such as Aircraft Maintenance Organizations Manuals (AMOs); Aircraft Maintenance Manuals (AMMs); Aircraft Flight Manuals (AFMs); Airworthiness Directives (ADs); Approved Maintenance Schedules (AMSs); Manual of Procedures (MOPs); Pilot Operating Handbook (POH); Minimum Equipment Lists (MELs); Inspection Procedure Manual; ICAO documents; Service Bulletins / Letters and Aviation Legislation in South Africa.
The Registry section, on the other hand, is responsible for
• Records Management and control;
• File maintenance and repair;
• Mail management; and
• Protecting CAA files against theft, loss and damage.
• A number of technical manuals were captured
into the Inmagic DB / Text, namely: the Manual
of Procedures (MOPs), Aircraft Maintenance
Organizations (AMOs); Approved Maintenance
Schedules (AMSs); Minimum Equipment Lists (MELs) and ICAO documents;
• Within the Records Management section, the TIMS software was installed and all registry forms were redesigned for effective control of files.
• Backlog on updating of manuals due to shortage of staff;
• Electronic management of Library material e.g. CDRom and Electronic Journals (EJournals) ;
• Ensure that files never go missing and are always available when needed;
• A growing industry has also resulted in a growing number of files; and these also need to be managed very effectively.
• All Library material needs to be captured into the Inmagic DB/Text Electronic library system;
• Provide effective Electronic book (Ebook)
Management service to CAA staff;
• An Electronic Document Management System needs to be implemented;
• The CAA’s file plan needs to be revised and
The Quality Assurance Division is responsible for ensuring that customer needs for high quality service are recognised and incorporated into CAA processes and activities.
It is responsible for establishing and maintaining a business management system within the CAA in order to ensure that all activities carried out by the CAA are done in a consistent and professional manner. The Business Management System of the CAA aligns
business and strategic objectives with CAA policies and processes in order to support the CAA in achieving its vision of “Excellence in Aviation Safety, Security and Industry Development”.
The Division achieved the following during the period under review:
• The CAA embarked on a new 3year
internal audit cycle in 2004. The initial audits in 2004 were very comprehensive and covered all procedures and legislation that impacted on the divisions as well as business or operational risk. The second year of the cycle kicked off in 2005 and progress will be measured against the findings raised during 2004. The audit resulted in various operational challenges
being highlighted and improvements being made, which impacted directly or indirectly on the services rendered to customers;
• The CAA Executive Management team reconfirmed their support and commitment to the CAA Business Management System and to the adherence of the ISO 9001 2000 World Standard for Quality Management Systems (QMS) at a workshop held in February 2005;
• The CAA Customer Service Charter, which contains the CAA’s commitment to the provision of ‘excellent’ customer service, was finalised and placed on the CAA website. A central point for logging feedback on customer service was introduced and all feedback will be monitored and any complaints resolved speedily;
• External customer service standards were developed and implemented within each Division and achievement of these standards will be managed by the respective Divisional Managers and monitored by Client Services;
• CAA Strategies and Business Objectives were
reviewed and amended in January 2005, which
resulted in the amendment of the CAA Mission and related documentation. These changes were
incorporated into the CAA activities and will be
monitored on a quarterly basis;
The following challenges will be faced during the coming year:
• Ensuring the continued support and commitment to the Quality Management System from all levels within the CAA;
• Ensuring that customer focus is built into all
processes, and that the achievement of service
standards is audited for its success;
• Finding appropriate software solutions to compliment the business management system; and
• Changing the perceptions within the organisation regarding Business Management System.
The following projects will be pursued by the division during the coming year:
• Re-engineering of key business processes within the CAA in order to improve efficiency and customer focus within the organisation;
• Rendering assistance to the Africa Indian (AFI)
region, when this is requested from the CAA,
• Preparing the CAA for the ICAO audit which is
expected in 2007; and
• Investigating and implementing a fully paperless
The annual financial statements of the South African Civil Aviation Authority set out on pages 64 to 84 for the year ended 31 March 2005 has been audited in terms of the Public Finance and Management Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999 as amended) and the South African Civil Aviation Authority Act, 1998 (Act No. 40 of 1998). These financial statements are the responsibility of the
Authority‘s board of directors. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with statements of South African Auditing Standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance that the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes:
∙ examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures included in the financial statements,
∙ assessing the accounting principles used and
significant estimates made by management, and
∙ evaluating the over all financial statement presentation.
We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion the financial statements fairly present, in all material respects, the financial position of the
Authority at 31 March 2005 and the results of its
operations and cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with South African Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP), the Public Finance and Management Act (PFMA), 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999 as amended) and the South African Civil
Aviation Authority Act, 1998 (Act No. 40 of 1998).
Emphasis of matter
Without qualifying our opinion above, we draw attention to note 9 to the financial statements. The Authority invested R60 000 000 with a guaranteed maturity value of R88 271 601 with Old Mutual and Momentum Group Limited. In order to secure this guaranteed maturity value of R88 271 601 at a minimum interest rate of
approximately 7.8%, the Authority had to pay a
commission of R2 500 000 to Old Mutual Life Assurance Company (South Africa) Limited and Momentum Group Limited. At the time of making these investments, there was no investment policy in operation. An economic analysis in support of these investments could not be made available to us. As indicated in the directors’ report the board has commissioned a forensic audit to investigate whether there has been any possible fruitless and wasteful expenditure incurred on the payment of commission.
31 August 2005
The Directors present their seventh report in terms of the South African Civil Aviation Authority Act, 1998 (Act No. 40 of 1998) and the Public Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999 amended), which forms part of the audited financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2005. The Authority is listed as a Schedule 3A Public Entity in terms of the PFMA.
The Directors are of the opinion that The South
African Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) complies with the provisions of the PFMA, except with regard to the emphasis of matter referred to in the audit report and the forensic audits referred to in the review of operations below.
Nature of business
The CAA is a statutory body with the primary function to control and regulate civil aviation in South Africa
and to oversee the safety and security of the aviation industry.
The CAA was established as a juristic body in terms of The South African Civil Aviation Authority Act, 1998, (Act 40 of 1998). This, together with the Civil Aviation Fuel Levy and Aircraft Passenger Safety Charge Act, enables the CAA to impose a passenger charge, fuel levy and direct charges upon the aviation industry, allowing it to generate revenue to fund its operations.
Board of Directors
The Board of Directors decide on all material matters affecting the entity and thus control all significant financial and strategic decisions. With the exception of the Chief Executive Officer, the Board of Directors exclusively comprise of independent nonexecutive directors who were chosen for their industry expertise, skill and acumen.
In terms of its enabling legislation the CAA is mandated to generate its funding requirements from the imposition of user fees, a charge on departing scheduled passengers and fuel levy payable by the
general aviation industry. The CAA continues to conduct the full accident and incident responsibilities on behalf of the National Department of Transport and receives an annual payment for these services.
Revenue increased by 8% from R116 million to R125 million and is mainly due to the annual increase in direct charges, increased operational billable activities and an unexpected increase of 8% in passenger numbers in comparison with a 5% in the
The industry is charged for direct services per regulated fees. The second increase in direct charges was implemented on 1 April 2004, which is in line with the fiveyear
funding model of the organisation.
The aircraft passenger safety charge of R7 is charged on all scheduled passengers departing from all airports in the country. This source of revenue represents 64% of the total funding. The fuel levy
is charged to general aviation at 1.5 cents per litre. The passenger safety charge and fuel levy were not increased during the financial year.
The CAA made two fixed investments during the year. The investments were made in September 2004 and December 2004 and yielded income of R2,3 million. Additional investment interest income of R5,7 million will be generated in the next financial period.
Bad debts to the value of R1,007 million were recovered during the year due to a strong legal approach that was taken to recover outstanding debts. The Regulations pertaining to the Aircraft Passenger Safety Charge were amended from 1 April 2004 to shorten the period of collection which also had a positive impact on the cash flow of the organisation.
The South African Revenue Services conducted a Value Added Tax (VAT) investigation during the 2003 financial year stating that the Output VAT was not correctly calculated and paid over. The assessment was contested and the CAA recovered R 1,93 million during the financial period.
Employment costs have increased by 21% mainly due to an increase in staff complement from 229 to 277. Operating costs increased by 21% and this is mainly attributable to office moving expenses from
Brooklyn,Pretoria to Midrand, Johannesburg. Travel and related expenses increased due to an increase in oversight activities.
Review of operations
The new Board of Directors was appointed by the Minister of Transport with effect from 1 st May 2005. In reviewing the Financial Year to March 2005 the Board has relied on statements provided by the Executive Management.
Following concerns expressed by both the internal and external auditors, the Board has commissioned forensic audits in respect of the following two matters to satisfy itself that there has been no fruitless and wasteful expenditure:
∙ The tranche investment of surplus funds.
∙ Office Relocation and Lease Agreements.
The Board has been advised that during the financial year under review, the CAA increased its efforts to promote and improve levels of safety throughout the civil aviation industry. The organisation remains
committed to maintaining its capacity to continue to adhere to International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) standards and safety oversight requirements, especially in the technical area of flight operations.
In the next financial year the organisation will expand greater effort towards the recruitment and retention of more suitably qualified personnel in all technical areas. The following is a highlight of key operational
achievements during the year as advised by the Executive Management.
Eight additional Flight Operations inspectors were recruited in order to enhance the safety oversight function. Increased inspections were performed on operators, simulators, crews both in South Africa and at satellite stations which resulted in a
surveillance activities increase of 20% against the performance of the previous year.
Oversight in airworthiness requires the inspectorate to ascertain that all aircraft that fly in South African airspace are safe and mechanically sound for flight, as well as ensuri ng that approved Aircraft Maintenance Organisations perform their tasks in accordance with the requirements of the relevant Regulations. These oversight activities were increased by 35% and a total of four inspectors and four administrators joined the division. Liaison with industry continued and a workshop held with the industry during the year underpinned cooperation between the entities.
Manufacturing Regulations were amended to meet global standards, and are due for publication in the Government Gazette. A needs analysis/survey of manufacturing organisations was carried out in order to determine the level of conformance with the requirements. Subsequent evaluation of the responses formed the basis for the implementation of the “smart” surveillance
The Personnel Standards Division created a
database system for foreign students and an
examination entry procedure for technical
employees was established. A revised cabin
crew rewrite examination policy was implemented in accordance with the Civil Aviation Technical Standards. Audits of foreign and local Commercial Pilot Licenses were conducted. A manual of procedure for Curriculum Development was developed. 3728 licences were issued during the year. A panel of designated examiners was created including a draft constitution for the appointment of designated examiners. In an ongoing effort to improve the levels of customer service, the turn around time for the issuing of licenses was reduced from 1 hour to 30 minutes.
An external Medical Appeal Panel was established to research appeal cases and to advise the Commissioner. This resulted in the finalisation of appeal cases that had, in some instances, been outstanding for over a year. The medical aspects of cabin crew training were reviewed and the industry
and relevant medical authorities participated in reviewing the curriculum. These inputs were forwarded to the Standard Generating Body (SGB) responsible for formulating the Flight Attendant Unit Standards for submission to the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA). New examination questions and oversight of Air Ambulances highlighted a number of noncomplying operators that prompted communication with various Provincial Health Departments and Medical Aids to ensure that their aeromedical services tender specifications included compliance with the Civil Aviation Regulations, particularly Part 138.
The 52 nd ICASM (The International Conference for Aviation and Space Medicine) was hosted at Sun
City. The CAA sponsored the event and worked closely with SASAEM (The South African Society for Aerospace and Environmental Medicine) to ensure its success. Members of the Aviation Medicine Division cochaired scientific sessions at
the event. The CAA also sponsored the participation of ten black medical specialists who are part of the medical appeal panel. This forms part of a strategy to promote the participation of previously disadvantaged groups in aviation medicine.
All 138 licensed Airports were inspected during the year. Safety Promotion Workshops were held at Wonderboom and Oribi Airports with a focus on aerodrome management. The CAA continued with its consultation with the Wonderboom and Mafikeng Airports in order to maintain critical results areas in aerodrome safety. Eight emergency exercises were attended in order to validate emergency procedural manuals. Emergency management systems were established at five airports and 800 obstacles, most of them cellular telephone radio masts, were inspected for compliance with relevant safety standards and approved.
Each of the 19 Air Traffic Service Units and the two approved ATOs were inspected twice during the year, as scheduled. A substantial amount of time was spent on coordinating National Airspace Committee meetings and providing a secretariat service. These meetings took place four times during the year. A new ATS Licensing format and application system was introduced to the ATNS Standards Office and implemented.
In keeping with the requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations of 1981, the Minister of Transport
appointed the Chief: Civil Aviation Security. Under the leadership of the newly appointed Chief: Civil Aviation
Security the National Aviation Safety (Security) Plan (NASP) was promulgated in November 2004. This
document redefines the roles and responsibilities of all other agencies and role players at the airports and
airlines and sets out the National Criteria to be met in terms of aviation security. Further to ensure full
compliance of the identified standards and recommended practices, an additional ten airports outside of
the ten ACSA airports, were designated in terms of the NASP.
Events subsequent to the balance sheet date
The organisation has been deregistered from Value Added Tax as from 1 April 2005.
The CAA has a materiality framework whereby all material and significant information is disclosed to the
Finance Board on a biannual basis.
Basis of preparation
The financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis in accordance with Generally Accepted
Accounting Practice and under the historical cost basis, except for certain financial assets and liabilities
that are measured on a fair value basis or amortised cost in terms of AC133 – Financial Instruments:
Recognition and Measurement.
The principal accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements are set out below and are consistent with those of the previous year except where otherwise noted.
Equipment, with the exception of the aircraft, is stated at historical cost to the organisation, less accumulated
depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on historical cost using the straightline method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The method and rates used are determined by the relevant conditions in the industry. Aircraft is stated at valuation less accumulated depreciation. The valuation was done
effective 1 October 1998, being the date of inception of the CAA.
The recorded value of depreciated assets is periodically compared to the anticipated recoverable amount if the assets were to be sold. Where an asset’s recorded value has declined below the recoverable amount, and the decline is expected to be of a
permanent nature, the decline is recognised as an expense.
The annual depreciation rates and estimated useful lives are as follows:
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realisable
value. Cost is determined on the weighted average
basis. Redundant and slowmoving
identified and written down with regard to their
estimated economic or realisable values .
Foreign currency transactions
Transactions in foreign currencies are accounted for
at the rate of exchange ruling on the date of the
transaction. Gains and losses arising from the
settlement of such transactions are recognised in the
The invoiced value of sales and services rendered,
excluding value added tax, in respect of trading
operations is recognised at the date services are
Revenue recognition (continued)
Safety charge is based on the number of passengers departing from all airports in the country. This data is obtained from both Airports Company of South Africa and the various airline companies.
Fuel levies are based on fuel supplied by fuel companies to the General Aviation Operators. This is based on the litres audi ted by the fuel company auditors.
Accident and incident investigation fees are based on the number of accidents and incidents that are investigated and the revenue generated varies according to the nature and extent of the investigation.
User fees are generated from examinations, licence renewals, certifications, airworthiness and calibrations.
This revenue is recognised when the service is rendered.
The organisation participates in a defined contribution fund, which is governed by the Pension Fund Act 1956, (Act No. 24 of 1956) and in which all employees participate. Current contributions to retirement benefit
fund are charged to the income statement in the period incurred.
Financial assets and liabilities are recognised on the Authority’s balance sheet when the Authority has become a party to contractual provisions of the instrument.
The Authority’s pri nci pal financial assets are Investments, trade and other receivables, bank balances and cash.
Investments are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis where the purchase or sale of an investment is under a contract whose terms require delivery of the investment within the timeframe established by the market concerned, and are initially measured at fair value, plus directly attributable transaction costs.
At subsequent reporting dates, investments that the CAA has the expressed intention and ability to hold to maturity (holdtomaturity debt securities) are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, less any impairment loss recognised to reflect
irrecoverable amounts. An impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss when there is objective
evidence that the asset is impaired, and is measured as the difference between the investment’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition.
Impairment losses are reversed in subsequent periods when an increase in the investment’s recoverable amount can be related objectively to an event occurring
after the impairment was recognised, subject to the restriction that the carrying amount of the investment at the date the impairment is reversed shall not exceed
that the amortised cost would have been had the impairment not been recognised.
Trade and other receivables
Trade and other receivables are stated at their amortised cost reduced by appropriate allowances for estimated irrecoverable amounts. Due to the shortterm nature of the Authority’s trade and other receivables, amortised cost approximates its fair value.
Cash on hand is measured at its face value. Deposits held on call are classified as loans originated by the Authority and corrected at amortised cost. Due to its shortterm nature amortised cost approximates its fair value.
Financial liabilities are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. Financial liabilities include finance lease obligations, bank overdrafts and trade and other payables.
Finance charges are accounted for on the accrual basis and are added to the carrying amount of the instrument to the extent that they are not settled in the period in which they arise.
Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables are stated at amortised cost. Due to the shortterm nature of the Authority’s trade and other payables, the cost approximates its fair value
Provisions are recognised when the organisation has a present legal or constructive obligation, as a result of past events for which it is probable that an outflow of
economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation
and a reliable estimate can be made of the obligation.
Leases of equipment where the CAA assumes
substantially all the benefits and risks of ownership are classified as finance leases.
Assets leased in terms of finance lease agreements are capitalised at amounts equal at the inception of the lease to the fair value of the leased asset, or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments and is depreciated in accordance with the policies applicable to equivalent items of equipment.
The corresponding rental obligation, net of finance charges, is included in longterm payables. Lease finance charges are allocated to income statement over the duration of the lease by using a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period.
Leases, under which the risks and benefits of ownership are effectively retained by the lessor, are classified as operating leases. Rental incurred under operating leases are charged to the income statement in equal instalments over the period of the lease, except when an alternative method is more representative of the time pattern from which benefits are derived.
Asset replacement reserve
The asset replacement reserve, which is part of
distributable reserves, represents a portion of surpluses generated during the financial year based on asset replacement needs and funds availability. This reserve is created to enable the CAA to maintain an asset base that is in line with the aviation safety mandate.